Whereas stone carved heads in the Celtic idiom are common in Britain and research in recent years (Billingsley) has shown they have been made throughout history into present times, some academics have become increasingly sceptical that such objects were made in Britain before the Roman Conquest. Although Celtic heads are known from Continental Europe since the 4th century BC, there appears to be no heads published which have been found from stratified archaeological Iron Age contexts anywhere in Britain. Dr. Anne Ross wrote the most detailed account, arguing for a Celtic cult of the head in Pagan Celtic Britain, first published in 1967. Although nowhere in that volume did she state that stone heads in Britain were an Iron Age phenomenon, she concluded that a small number of heads had the attributes of pre Roman artefacts. It is clear however that she held the view that both stone and wooden heads were objects of ritual in the pre Roman Celtic World. Critics who have argued against a Cult of the Head as put forward by Anne Ross have a tendency to overlook her caution towards the existence of heads manifested in stone in pre-Roman Britain. She actually wrote “there are very few heads in stone which we can confidently date to the pre-Roman period” she then discusses several menhirs with heads from Britain and their Iron Age parallels on the continent, as well as incised pebbles with simple faces from the British Isles of likely pre-Roman date.

Anyone familiar with the so called Celtic Head will immediately recognise a fundamental difference in the Littledean heads. Many are small and crude with the minimum of sculpting. These are, as an overall type, generally etched into suitably shaped small to medium sized stones. Only a few can be regarded as heads sculpted in three dimensional form e.g. NO.10. and then never has the back of the head been sculpted. As a class of British Iron Age objects and with the exception of the oval face masks, they appear at this point in time to have no precise parallels. Having inspected 65 heads in October 2019 Professor Miranda Aldhouse – Green considered that, given the way many of the heads are shaped and depicted, they have an emphasis on the eyes. Miranda Green deals at length, in her book The Gods of the Celts, with the evidence from France of healing in the Iron Age at the Fontes Sequanae, at the source of he river Seine and again at ‘Source des Roches de Chamalieres’ south of Clermont Ferrand. She describes how both sites show impressive evidence of eye complaints amongst the huge numbers of wooden votives. Many of the wooden figures at the Seine sanctuary although no more than simple rectangular blocks, have the head clearly shaped: “perhaps recognition is important, or perhaps the eye problems suggested by the closed eyes on many images, caused the head to receive special attention.” Given the evidence for varied geology amongst the heads Professor Green considered the Littledean site may have been on a pilgrimage route between shrines such as Lydney, half a dozen miles or so down the Severn estuary and elsewhere, which draws a direct parallel with pilgrims travelling to the springs at the source of the Seine during the 1st century BC. More recently Ece Sayram Okay argues the case for pilgrimage as central to the healing process, entailing specific designs of Roman architecture which can be highlighted by the ambulatory, particularly in the Littledean peristyle temples which replaced the early Romano Celtic water shrine. Perhaps in Britain as in the Graeco Roman world the Celtic shrines, very much open air affairs, held perambulation ‘sunwise’ around the sacred locus. Anne Ross in discussion with the late Professor Barri Jones observed that although the Littledean site was not at the source of the river Severn, the springs fed a tributary stream. She also believed that the horseshoe bend, Barrow Hill in the isthmus and the Severn bore probably held such huge symbolic significance as to make the site pre eminent as the cult shrine of the river goddess Sabrina. We should probably consider that wooden head votives may also have been deposited at Littledean and not survived.

The photographic images also include possible and probable head fragments. Professor Aldhouse – Green’s assessment of the Littledean site as a healing water shrine places a particular emphasis on these fragments, common at some continental shrines and which may represent specific parts of the face requiring treatment. It is quite likely that many of these fragments have been overlooked or are too decayed to identify. Consequently any statistical evaluation of the Littledean Stone Heads will need to take this into account. Further field observations during post excavation backfilling will give special attention to the stone debris in case more pieces can be recovered.

Some views and opinions expressed in this Gallery are my own (Don Macer-Wright) and consequently do not represent academic authority.


H.1 Head 1. Ochre stained Old Red Sandstone head [220]

Find Spot East Bank Slope Pool 4a this head came from the top of the bank slope of pool 4a, which pool was cut into the supplementary water feed to the primary spring head Pool 1. The head showed evidence of erosion from water flow, smoothing and rounding the head features. Slight traces remain of ochre staining suggesting the head was ‘painted’ in red ochre.

H.2 Head 2 Large broken sandstone face mask

Find Spot in upcast soil during garden landscaping ponds in the walled garden west side of Dean Hall. The head was found roughly 25 metres north west of the medieval well house, where significant quantities of Roman painted plaster, pottery and opus signinum (Roman concrete) have been found. The sandstone geology, which has not yet been identified, does not appear to be local Old Red Sandstone. The mask has well defined nostrils. It is a residual a residual find and probably Romano Celtic in date.

H.3 Head 3 Small Old Red Sandstone Face mask [IAB]

Find Spot Pool 5 in sandy silts at the bottom of the small pool fed by small water course flowing from Pool 1. Several other heads and fragments found (see below). Also a broken neolithic axe deposited in the pool bank slope, flint auger and iron ingots.

H.4 Head 4 Tiny Yellow Green Sandstone Face mask [IAB]

Find Spot Pool 5 in sandy silts at the bottom of the small pool fed by small water course flowing from Pool 1. The yellow green sandstone is very soft and grainy and has clearly become abraded from water erosion. As a Celtic face with lentoid eyes his tiny head was anomalous until Head 27. These tiny face masks may have been typical votive deposits for healing (Professor Green).

H.5 Head 5 Old Red Sandstone small face mask [IAB]

Find Spot Pool 5 in sandy silts at the bottom of the small pool fed by small water course flowing from Pool 1. This small mask came from the same context as H.4 and is identified as a face mask by association. It is worn from water erosion.

H.7 Head 7 Small Bluestone Face mask [IAB]

Find Spot in Post Excavation Backfill of Pool 5. This face mask also satisfies similar criteria for votive deposits. The stone appears to be slate or blue stone and most likely from Wales. The wear and polish suggests it was often handled and kept in a pocket or pouch. It can be defined as an apotropaic head deposited to fulfil a wish.

H.8 Head 8 Antlered Face mask etched into prehistoric hand grinder [200]

Find Spot Pool 1 below levelling layer of Iron Age pool levels prior to building the Roman nymphaeum. This is possibly a pre historic hand grinder for a saddle quern, which has been incised with ‘pinhole’ type eyes and possibly horns or antlers. However the lines over the eyes could be eyebrows and would thus represent pre Iron Age imagery. However head 8 below is clearly similar and appears to be more typically Iron Age. This suggests these crude faces may be early Iron Age.

H.9A Head 9A Antlered face mask etched into prehistoric Old Red Sandstone hammer stone [200]
H.9 Head 9 Antlered face mask etched into prehistoric Old Red Sandstone hammer stone [200]

Find Spot Pool 1 below levelling layer of Iron Age pool levels prior to building the Roman nymphaeum. This artefact may have been a pre historic hammer stone or flint knapping tool or may have been used as a pot boiler. The incisions above the eyes may be antlers. The opposite face Head 9 also looks like possible antlers. These images reworked on this artefact may be early/simple representations of the Celtic God Cernunnos, lord of the animals.

H.10 Head 10 Iconic Celtic stone head with ochre staining or ‘paint’

Find Spot Pool 1 sealed in clay silt deposits of the metal working phase. This extraordinary head is a remarkable find with an iconic appearance. It is a stone head which defines what the archaic Celtic head can look like. The wedge shaped nose and lentoid eyes with empty stare and small defined mouth is categorically Celtic. The red ochre stain may be a reference to the metal smith, whose skin could be reddened by the dust of ore and ochre.

H.11 Head 11Red ochre stone head with ear

Find Spot Pool 1 from metal working clay silt residues of pool. In unwashed stone artefacts box stored at Littledean Hall since 1984 with other red ochre stone examples from same context and with broken sandstone mace head. Another extraordinary red ochre head actually cut into red ochre stone. This head has a clearly defined ear, which is a rare feature amongst the heads, nostrils and long drooping moustache, reported in classical sources as an ethnic trait of the Celts.

H.12 Head 12 This head is ochre stained with more primitive features to H.10

Find Spot Stone Hole 3, which may have been a post pit to take a tree trunk as support for an anvil. This head had been placed in the bottom near the side of the pit with several pieces of iron slag, one of which is Head 13 below. This head was also liberally covered with ochre stain and provides compelling evidence, given the find contexts of this and Heads 10 and 11 for a ritual use of ochre relative to iron working. The pin hole and sunken eyes with clearly defined brow and slash for the mouth combine to create a powerful effect at one and the same time vacant and yet benevolent. The cranial ridge from the nose may be deliberate and appears to form a cross in the centre of the forehead. There is also the remnants of an ear on one side suggesting this was a complete depiction of a head. Given the contemporaneity of Heads 10 and 12 we can consider they may be considered exemplars of the hitherto unrecognised Celtic archaic head of Iron Age Britain possibly peculiar to the metal working district west of the Severn.

H.13 Head 13 Iron ‘slag skull’ head

Find Spot Stone Hole 3 beside Head 12 above. This piece of slag has a similarity to a skull, not best seen in this photo, and given its association with Head 12 suggests the image of a head was seen in the slag. Several other pieces of slag, Heads 67,68 and 70 as single finds in water contexts do suggest they were placed in the water features as offerings, rather than the collective dumping of slag in ditches and disused pits which is more consistent with metal working refuse disposal.

H.14 Head 14 Moulded clay head in base of portal post hole PH10 to Late Iron Age/Early Roman water shrine
H.14A Head 14A Sketch illustration of moulded clay head in Post Hole PH10

H.16 Head 16 Conglomerate Sandstone large crude ‘Bronderslev type head’ frontal face

The ‘Bronderslev type head’ refers to two Iron Age heads from Bronderslev in Denmark illustrated by Dr. Anne Ross in Pagan Celtic Britain opp pp.96. These two heads probably do not date to the 2nd C BC or earlier as previously written. They were found with masses of broken pot sherds dating from the late pre Roman and Early Roman Iron Age in Jutland. One stood on a pile of broken sherds of early 1st century pottery. It has minimal features barely describing eyes and mouth and typify the most basic representation of the sculpted human head whereby stones with natural features have been enhanced. This Littledean example satisfies similar criteria whereby the minimum of stone working has enhanced and made use of natural features in the stone. Notably this stone has a worked and slightly rounded dome for the top of the head and a flat worked base. It also has two other crude faces on the reverse and one side. It may be a triple head (triplism is noted by Ross, Green et al. as a symbolism running through Celtic tradition). The stone was built into the Roman temple outer wall at the point where the outlet drain discharged into a drainage gulley. Head 16A below has an embedded quartz pebble for the mouth and minimal ridge for nose. The left eye is visible whilst the right is nondescript. In Head 16 the mouth is obvious from a crease crack in the stone and an interesting quartz intrusion possibly representing a single tooth. The nose shows as a low ridge and the left eye is obvious whilst the right is again nondescript. Head 16B has an exaggerated mouth, a slight swelling for nose and a possible offset left eye which is a shallow depression. These faces are clearly ephemeral and, were this an isolated single find out of context, easy to objectively dismiss. However considering the contexts, both immediate and general to the site, this stone is put forward as an artefact of possible significance. Triple sided or joined heads are known as tricephaloi. Whether this is such an object is open to debate which must determine whether or not it can be considered a head in the first place. BUT see heads 87 and 88 found in a similar context in 2020. These are again of the same type. The dating evidence from Bronderslev demonstrates how careful one needs to be in drawing conclusions through style. The contexts for these Littledean heads suggests they are possibly a similar date to the heads from Bronderslev.

H.16A Head 16A Conglomerate Sandstone large crude ‘Bronderslev type head’ side face

H.16B Head 16B Conglomerate Sandstone large crude ‘Bronderslev type head’ rear face
H.17 Head 17 Old Red Sandstone small head with ‘cigarette hole

Find Spot Furnace 6, a metal working hearth which produced a large quantity of Iron Age smithing slag. This small head was within the slag deposit suggesting it was placed within the hearth debris. Another head fragment (H18) also came from the same feature and a small worked piece of sandstone which may represent a miner’s pick. Below the hearth was another remarkable deposit of nine stone heads all filled in together with pieces of broken stone and earth. This deposit was the top layer of silt and sand fill into a circular pit which may also have taken a tree trunk for an anvil base, as with Stone Hole 3 and Head 16. The filling of pits with structured deposits including heads or other artefacts is a recurring theme at the Littledean Water shrine. This small head has a tiny hole drilled above the middle of the mouth. This is a feature of Celtic heads referred to as a ‘cigarette hole’ and is thought to have represented a point of spiritual communion with the ritual object.

H.18 Head 18 Old Red Sandstone broken head with ear

Find Spot Furnace 6. This broken fragment also came from amongst the smithing slag and hearth waste of this smithing hearth. It is the right hand side and fragment of a medium sized head with a relatively fresh break across the eye. however no other part could be found. It also has the remnant of an ear but there is only a vestigial trace of a mouth. However in its complete state it was probably a well depicted example maybe similar to Head 1.

H.19 Head 19 Old Red Sandstone ‘Sphinx’ profile head

Find Spot Well 1 in pre metal working phase stone backfill. This head is unique to the collection. It is represented in profile on one side only. It has a pecked sun emblem and other pecking marks on the flat surface of the reverse side H.19A below. It bears a similarity to a sphinx figure with a haunch and trace of a tail. It may therefore be an anthropomorphic figure or figurine and not strictly a head. However in the same fill another simple head in double profile H.54, is highly burnished and, although equally unique in its own way, probably indicates these two heads are contemporary. Given their context, well stratified and sealed amongst stone fill, they could be early to middle Iron Age or even possibly late Bronze Age.

H.19A Head 19A Old Red Sandstone ‘Sphinx’ profile head with sun emblem rear
H.20 Head 20 Old Red Sandstone head fragment

Find Spot Base of Hearth Iron Age Furnace 2. This piece may represent an eye and is possibly an example of Professor Miranda Green’s argument for eye healing. It came from the black silt probably dredged from Pool 7 and is associated thereby with Heads 27 and 65. Contextually it satisfies the criteria for coming from a small pool in which people may have bathed their eyes.

H.21 Head 21 Yellow Brown sandstone head – image from screen source

Find spot amongst slag fill, late phase Roman ditch outlying Iron Age Bank, this head is eroded and partly broken. Probably re deposited. Lentoid eye, rectangular wedge nose and slits for mouth with furrows across the forehead, possibly with a circular feature at the top of the nose. This head is significantly larger than all the heads and may have been a largish rounded block of stone. The features are not Romano Celtic however. The detail and state of preservation is unfortunately too poor to make much of this head, which may have been a singular artefact of particular significance.

H.22 Head 22 Old Red Sandstone small crude head

Find Spot Spoil Heap from Retaining Bank Stone Hole 1. As a residual artefact from the spoil heap this object can not be given a context. However it most likely relates to Pool 1 and may best be considered to have come from the bank of the pool at the east end. It is a small crude head with a pronounced/enlarged nose and ‘pinhole’ eyes. Possibly it represents an inflamed or swollen nose condition

H.23 Head 23 Old Red Sandstone head fragment burnishing

Find Spot Retaining Bank Stone Hole 1 Iron Age layer 2 in east bank of Pool 1. This head may indicate where Head 22 came from. It is badly damaged and the eyes are not well defined. The nose ridge appears to have been burnished through rubbing and may again suggest a damaged nose condition. The burnishing suggests that before offering as a votive it was repeatedly held and rubbed in a pocket as an apotropaic object perhaps in an attempt to cure a sore nose. This may suggest offering was a last resort or indeed the culmination of pilgrimage.

H.24 Head 24 Old Red Sandstone small crude head and features

Find Spot Retaining Bank Stone Hole 1 Iron Age layer 2 in east bank of Pool 1. The same find spot and context as Head 23. Again this small head has an exaggerated nose. It is very interesting that two and possibly three heads from the same find area differ from other heads by having ill defined but possibly swollen nose features.

Find Spot Stone Hole 6 in backfill of ‘secondary pool’ features this small conglomerate head shaped stone is an uncertain artefact. It is identified as possibly a head due to its find spot. It was found with several quartz pebbles and fragments which may have been deliberately deposited in the western pool feature of the tripartite secondary pool identified by Professor Jones in 1985. The missing small quartz intrusions may have been deliberately removed to represent eye holes.

H.26 Head 26 Limestone plaque face mask

Find Spot Outer Gulley West End. The find spot and context of this head indicates it was deposited in the Romano Celtic period, late 1st early 2nd century. It is in excellent condition and unabraded. The shaped face mask probably indicates it was designed to originally fit in a niche. The outer rim has been ground to make it smooth. The top of the nose disconnected from the eyes and bulbous nose is not typical of the Iron Age nose style, where the lines are usually taken up to form eyebrows or the top line of the eyes. It is a remarkable face mask which demonstrates the disparity of style in time and space. The shape indicates positioning in a niche as found on the Continent. It may be Early Roman period and could have been placed in the entrance portal or lintel to the original early Roman proto water shrine (see H.31). The stone can be identified as Carboniferous shale from the strata associated with the Forest of Dean coal measures. The colouring cannot be seen in this picture, but it is covered in a shiny black bitumin which oozes out of the stone when cleaned. The deep cut oval eyes may have held glass or quartz inserts.

H.27 Head 27 Chalk crudely etched head with cut for eye insets

Find Spot Furnace 1. This extraordinary tiny head came from below the base of a smithing hearth cut into black redeposited silts, which may have been dredged from Pool 7, a small terminal pool at the end of the water channel, which started life as a Bronze Age Water boiling trough for cooking meat. The head probably pre dates the Iron Age metal working period. The geology has not yet been determined but it may be chalk. The shape of the small mask plaque was clearly shaped. The straight mouth is covered by a Celtic style moustache and the eyes have evidence for seating rims to take glass insets. The nose is nondescript and ill defined.

H.28 Head 28 Old Red Sandstone crude head Bronderslev parallel

Find Spot Stone Hole 3 Water Channel 1. Identified asa crude head Bronderslev parallel, this small broken head is an example of the Celtic unworked head, where stones were probably selected for their facial similarities and enhanced or exaggerated into crude facial detail. Two heads in Bronderslev, Denmark are cited by the late Dr. Anne Ross for this phenomenon. Such heads may date towards the middle Iron Age e.g. 5th to 4th centuries BC. One large conglomerate head H.16 reused within the Roman foundations has a direct parallel in size and appearance with the Bronderslev example.

H.29 Head 29 Old Red Sandstone small water worn head

Find Spot East Bank Slope Pool 4a. This small head came from near to H.1, it is noteworthy for its shape and simple yet effective design. It has the minimum of sculpting and yet is unequivocally a small stone head. The water worn appearance possibly caused by flowing water is the common comparison between a small group of heads and artefacts from this context. Maybe all the features were more pronounced and deeper cut before erosion took place.

H.30 Head 30 Coloured Old Red Sandstone ‘sun’ head with neck torc

Find Spot adjacent north side of Stone Hole 3 in Water Channel 1 from Bronze Age/Iron Age horizon. This artefact is included as a head because each side profile has a pecked circle for eyes and the frontal ridge appears to represent a nose. There is no remains of a mouth except a straight line across the bottom of the nose. Remarkably the piece of stone has clearly been selected so that when shaped, there was a ring of colour around the neck from the banding of colours within the sandstone. When wet this clearly looked like a torc or neck piece. As a head it is unique as is H.19. They both come from possible Bronze Age deposits. The treatment of the eyes by dotted pecks is unique in the Littledean collection.

H.30A Head 30A Coloured Old Red Sandstone ‘sun’ head pecked eyes
H.31 Head 31 Old Red Sandstone face mask ‘Entremont’ style

Find Spot water Channel 2. This head and the two which follow were buried as a deliberate deposit. The stratification was not defined enough to determine whether they were a burial, contemporary with the feature and context within which they were found, or an intrusive burial cut down through the features above. They appeared to be sealed below the Iron Age metal working surface but that cannot be proved. They were however buried before the levelling and make up for the Roman nymphaeum took place. Their deposition date could be any time since before the Iron Age metal working phase upto the early Roman period. H.31 has similarities of mask/plaque shape with H.26, including the ground and smoothed rim. There the parallels end as H.31 has distinct similarities with cephalic images from Entremont in the lower Rhone valley of France by the Mediterranean coast. The lack of eyes and single line slit for mouth is virtually identical to some of those images dating from around 500 BC http://www.entremont.culture.gouv.fr/en/f_archi_san.htm. Given the condition of this head any early comparisons could be coincidental. For example it has been pointed out that the image may represent a symbolic conflation of the human head with the horseshoe bend of the river Severn. The image appears to have been incised and then the surface has been ground to create an extraordinary polished effect, which shines when it catches the light (the artefact has been cleaned and lightly buffed to enhance its appearance). The three heads were stacked one on the other and laid on edge lengthways with a thin matrix of clay between them. Stylistically H.31 and H.32 could date from the 2nd to 3rd century BC.

H.32 Head 32 Limestone face mask

Find Spot Water Channel 2. Another extraordinary and striking head. This one is incised into a piece of limestone to create an oval mask on which the head has been sculpted. It may be from a broken frieze with a number of heads all cut into separate ovals which formed part of a lintel.The portrayal of hair is particularly fine. Below the left eye is some form of damage which appears to be caused by an iron nail or spike (see H.33 below). This head is an excellent archetype for the Iron Age Celtic head.

H.33 Head 33 Limestone face mask

Find Spot Water Channel 2. This head was also incised into limestone to create an oval mask. Traces of fine lines sweeping across the forehead appear to cover parts of the face and may be the result of wind erosion. A nail appears to have been driven into the nose and may have a ritual meaning, as may the similar feature on H.32. The breaks around the oval are consistent with secondary working, whereby the original setting or purpose has been altered. Clearly similar damage or alteration was carried out to H.32. As a group these three Celtic Heads are unique in the Littledean corpus of heads. As a deposit they have no parallel with any of the other heads. They would seem to have been removed from a position of prominence and on view to a position of deliberate burial. This suggests they served a different purpose to all the heads which were placed/deposited/dropped or thrown into water at the Littledean Water shrine. Head 2 and Head 26 may also have been secondary deposits. All five belong to the class of Celtic head masks which were placed on view to be seen in specially designed niches. As such they share a design purpose comparable to the sanctuary of Roquepertuse a few miles from Marseilles and not far from Entremont https://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=29514.

H.34 Head 34 Chalk head baleful eye

Find Spot Water Channel 2 Pool 7. Lying on the silts of the sloping adjacent to the ‘bank’ of Pool 7, a later feature of the Bronze Age/Neolithic Water Channel/Boiling Trough, this head shone white when it was exposed during excavation as it was damp https://littledeanhall.wordpress.com/2019/12/09/chalk-head-no-34/. It is currently identified as a head sculpted into chalk. It is noteworthy for the single baleful eye. There is however sufficient trace of the other eye to indicate it was portrayed as tiny and it appears that the stone is not broken, but deliberately selected. The symbolism inherent in this artefact may stretch academic thought for years. The well formed and explicit mouth expresses a powerful sentiment of hurt and sadness.

H.35 Head 35 Old Red sandstone head sunken eyes

Find Spot Water Channel 2 Pool 7. Lying at base of backfill stone rubble fill to east side of H.34 this large head with prominent sunken orbs for eyes does not have the typical Celtic nose in any manner or form. The mouth is worked into a natural scar in the stone and numerous lines above it ( not showing in this picture may represent a moustache. The brow is prominent. This head is not atypical of the Littledean heads in general.

H.36 Head 36 Old Red Sandstone head baleful single eye

Find Spot Water Channel 2 Pool 7. In silts near bottom of pool feature adjacent south ‘bank’ this head has only one ‘baleful’ eye. The opposing side of the face at the stone’s edge is worn consistent with the shaping of the head. It is more a mask than a head. The mouth is very similar in its execution to that of H.34. Although the nose has eroded away it has some similarity also with H.34. Given these two heads are from the same general context, deposited in the small terminal pool at the end of the water channel from the primary Pool 1, Professor Miranda Green’s opinion that the spring fed waters probably held special curative properties for eye ailments, is particularly apposite with these two heads.

H.37 Head 37 Old Red Sandstone head sunken eyes see H.37A

Find Spot deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. This is one of nine heads in a single deposit below the base of Iron Age Furnace 6 on the north side of the primary spring head pool. They were deposited in a backfilled circular pit which possibly held a post or tree trunk for an anvil base. Secondary use involved removal of this post and backfilling with soil and sand which was capped with the deposit of stone heads and broken stone. There was no obvious trace of metal working slag amongst the deposit. The deposit was sealed below dark earth, clay and stone forming the base for a smithing hearth. The slag prills from this feature and the evidence for a furnace indicate this was a slag pit shaft furnace of the Iron Age period. H.37 is peculiar in that it has a recessed crown to the head with significant traces of red ochre staining, which does not appear on the face or head elsewhere.

H.37A Head 37A Old Red Sandstone head sunken eyes recessed ochre stained crown
H.38 Head 38 Old Red Sandstone head sunken eyes defined brows

Find Spot deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. This head from the deposit has particularly well defined eyes and eyebrows with a well shaped nose. The mouth has probably broken away.

H.39 Head 39 Old Red Sandstone head

Find Spot deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. There is a divergence with this head from the typical Celtic head represented by the Littledean examples, which has a possible relevance for Head 35. The indented forehead may be the result of damage and erosion or it may be deliberate, in which case it gives a rather cat like appearance to the whole face. On the reverse side are deep gouges or simulated scratch marks. This may be of particular significance in that a number of antefixa from Caerleon have ‘cat heads’. Ross comments fully on this particular phenomenon which she suggests may be unique to the Silures (Ross 1967). It is tempting to equate this image and the possible representative scratch marks on the rear with Cath Palug the giant water inhabiting demon ‘scratching’ cat which Ross refers to in the Caerleon contexts and which figures large in French Arthurian Romance.

H.40 Head 40 Old Red Sandstone double sided small head

Find Spot deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. This small double sided head has simple and crude imagery childlike in execution.

H.40A Head 40A Old Red Sandstone double sided small head
H.41 Head 41 Green sandstone eye and ear

Find Spot deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. An example of a single eye which may be as it was made or a broken abraded fragment. It is probably the former which is relevant as one must ask where is the rest of the head amongst the deposit. It is clear this object was placed with the other heads and is per se meant to represent an eye only. The rim of an ear may be an outer framing feature of the sculpted eye.

H.44 Head 44 Red and Green sandstone Boar’s head?

Find Spot deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. A particularly significant head because it is clearly not human and does have the symbolic neck ‘hackles’ of a boar and tusk features. The boar was a highly held sacred animal of the Celts, as described and referenced at length by Anne Ross in Pagan Celtic Britain 1967. There is much imagery in stone and bronze throughout the Celtic world. Two possible representations of little stone boars at Littledean give credence to the possibility that other heads do represent mythical animals, of which many feature in Irish and Welsh literature.

H.44A Head 44A Boar.s head ? rt side
H.45 Head 45 Crude sandstone head circular eyes

Find Spot Water Channel 2 Pool 7. Another head from amongst the lower layer of backfill stone rubble in Pool 7 near heads 34 to 36. This head is very eroded and the yellow brown sandstone is soft and no doubt easily broken down in water. The Old Red Sandstone heads are generally very well preserved, whilst more grainy recent sandstones show clear evidence for diminished features from erosion over the millenia and others indicate that some softer sandstones have probably completely broken down and destroyed over time. The circular eyes of this head are seen in several other examples e.g. H.51 and are distinctly different from the typical ‘lentoid’ val shaped eye commonly portrayed in later Iron Age heads.

H.46 Head 46 Old Red Sandstone small head

Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. Dubbed ‘eagle’ head by the excavators it is a small head in double sided profile with circular eye and curving nose and no mouth, going into a narrow neck, hence the curving beak of an eagle.

H.47 Head 47 Old Red Sandstone crude head

Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. One of three crude and simple stone heads with evidence of water erosion, all with basic but effective facial features and all from pre metal working fill in the water channel associated with Bronze Age stone carved material https://wordpress.com/block-editor/page/littledeanhall.wordpress.com/585. These heads were single deposits and as well as association with Bronze Age artefacts were near to sherds of Iron Age and Deverel Rimbury Middle/Late Bronze Age pot sherds. This evidence provides the earliest dating for any Littledean heads and may place these particular heads in an Early Iron Age context. Movement downwards in the silty soil from this water context cannot be ruled out however. Yet despite this it is reasonable to consider a date in theearlier centuries of the Iron Age for these heads. They may be the earliest stone head artefacts which can currently be identified in Britain.

H.48 Head 48 Old Red Sandstone crude head

Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. Water eroded early Iron Age stone head. See previous entry H.47

H.49 head 49 Old Red Sandstone crude head

Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. Early Iron Age stone head. See previous entry H.47

h.50 head 50 Old Red Sandstone Boar’s head?

Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. Possibly another symbolic boar’s head closely associated with sherd of Iron Age pottery.

H.51 Head 51 Old Red Sandstone head circular eyes insets

Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. This head came from a similar context to Heads 47 – 49 and is important as it has the round eyes which may have had inserts of glass although the seatings are very eroded and no glass has been found for these fairly large inserts. Upward movement of glass in the soil is commonplace however, in the same way as it is with flint and much of the Littledean flint came from the topsoil (this is typical of flint movement in the Stonehenge landscape Parker Pearson), as did the glass fragments. The mouth line is notably simple and an early date for this artefact seems tenable.

H.52 Head 52 Old Red Sandstone small head

Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. Another crudely minimalist eroded face and head from the same contexts as Heads 47 – 49 underscores the seven heads from the middle section of Water Channel 2 and the Bronze Age silts, of which four may have been deposited in the Iron Age during or before the emerging Hallstatt culture in Britain prior to the 6th century BC

H.53 Head 53 Old Red Sandstone grainy head facial growth face mask.

Find Spot Deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. An interesting head which Professor Miranda Green identifies as having a growth on the right cheek. The downturned mouth compares with other heads with single/damaged eyes e.g. H.34. The sandstone is very grainy which is typical with some heads from wet or damp contexts where erosion of the surface has taken place.

H.54 head 54 Old Red Sandstone Burnished head minimal detail

Find Spot Well 1 in pre metal working phase stone backfill. In the stone fill of the well near Head 19 ‘sphinx’ head. Both heads were sealed amongst the stone fill with no iron slag contamination. This simple profile head is highly burnished and clearly dissimilar to all the diagnostic Celtic Iron Age heads from Littledean.

H.54a head 54A Old Red Sandstone Burnished head rt hand side

Find Spot Well 1 in pre metal working phase stone backfill. It currently seems impossible to propose an attribute or identity for this head. The eyes are set in the sides and the nose and head are executed in one continuous curve or sweep, most suggestive of a bird or falcon.

h.54b head 54B Old Red Sandstone Burnished head left side
H.55 Head 55 Old Red Sandstone two heads superimposed on possible loomweight

Find Spot Water Feed to Pool 1 this object has a worn and abraded waist similar to possible loomweights from the site. Two faces are inscribed one overlying the other.

H.56 Head 56 Old Red Sandstone face mask

Find Spot Residual in mole hill by hedge south side south wall. This head has a similar texture to Head 53. Whilst lacking the detail due to erosion there is a suggestion that the eyes were treated differently to each other. The find spot was some 20 metres to the east of the Celtic nucleus of the Water Sanctuary.

h.57 Head 57 Old Red Sandstone Broken face mask drilled pupil

Find Spot Spoil heap Stone Hole 1 IA level 5b. This head was not found in situ and was missed as an artefact and only revealed on cleaning and washing away the impacted clay. It was collected from the spoil heap relating to the layer of the Iron Age path approaching the entrance to the Water Shrine of the early Romano British period. It is possibly a very important piece for several reasons. Firstly its size. It must have been an oval of around 20 x 30 centimetres, which would make it the largest head plaque or mask from the site. Secondly the depiction of hair is consistent with female gender. Thirdly the pupil is drilled and has very slight trace of a threaded seating suggesting a mount was screwed in, which no doubt would have had a coloured glass inset. It is possible therefore this was a face mask of a water deity mounted over the entrance portal of the water shrine. Evidence indicates there may have been a square posted portal at the east end, with an orientation towards the equinox sunrise. A typical treatment (Entremont, France) would be to have a wooden lintel and at the centre of this could have been fixed this stone plaque as an image of the goddess. Given the associations of equinox and Severn bore and orientation to the horseshoe bend it makes for a compelling argument that this was the face of Sabrina. It is therefore such a great shame that we do not have the other pieces.

H.57A Head 57A Close up of drilled pupil for fixing a mount with coloured glass inset
H.58 Head 58 Red Ochre Stone carved head

Find Spot Stone Hole 2 Soil/stone sample cleaned 05/10/19. Another remarkable red ochre head carved into a piece of red ochre stone and deposited with several large pieces of whetstone or sharpening hones in the fill of Stone Hole 2. SH2 is an important pit which may have held a standing stone roughly 1.5m (5ft) high over which the winter solstice sun rises when viewed from an alignment through the centre of Pools 2a and 2b, which may originally therefore held standing stones. The face has the iconic expression of downturned mouth and expressionless lentoid eyes and, in this case, slightly triangular wedge shaped nose. The forehead was clearly decorated with a crown of hair.

H.59 Head 59 Old Red Sandstone “owl” head with rimmed eyes

Find Spot Water Channel 2 Pool 7. Another anomalous head from the small terminal pool where Heads 34 to 36 came from. This head has well executed sunken pupils surrounded by rims and outer incised oval frames drawn out at the corners. The nose is drawn down to a central beak like rib and in place of a mouth is an upper and lower chevron pattern.

H.60 Head 60 Yellow and Purple Sandstone head

Find Spot Water Channel 2 mid section. A small crude head with pin hole eyes, pointed nose and single line upturned mouth creating a happy looking face. Perhaps an offering from a ‘satisfied customer’!

H.61 Head 61 Old Red Sandstone ‘Owl’ face tablet

Find Spot Springhead pool south bank rim Pool 1. Small tablet with one eye and trace of a single eye. The bottom face feature might be either a nose or mouth. Very soft piece of stone heavily water eroded.

H.62 Head 62 Yellow sandstone small face fragment

Find Spot Water Channel 2 mid section below WC1. This small piece came from an early to mid Iron Age context and appears to represent only a nose and mouth and is possibly broken from a larger piece. It may however been made to only represent these facial features and as such is typically votive.

H.63 Head 63 Quartz small pebble ‘Owl’ face

Find Spot Pool 5 Amongst other small heads finds including Heads 3 and 4. It is an example of the anthropomorphic type heads on pebbles referred to by Anne Ross in Pagan Celtic Britain 1967, although in this instance and the one below there is no carving. The eyes and nose are fairly obvious and a frontal swelling below adds to the symbolic head shape. Dating is by association with the Iron Age Celtic type Head 4. However Neolithic objects with this tiny pool, no more than a metre in diameter, can’t rule out this head being Neolithic.

H.64 Head 64 Flint pebble natural face

Find Spot Springhead Pool 1. One of the many flint pebbles found in the Springhead pool and on its north bank during the excavations of 1985. This is the only one with natural features forming a face.

H.65 Head 65 Ironstone face mask with eye on reverse

Find Spot Pool 6 in edging stone. This remarkable head only becomes obvious when studied. It is small, worn and in places shiny. There can be little doubt that it is atropopaic and carried around as a talisman before it was finally deposited as an offering. It was found below the silts dredged from Pool 7 filling the water ‘basin’ or feed to Well 1. The silt was spread covering these earlier water features and eventually became a working area for smithing hearths. This head and Head 27 were therefore buried below the metal working layers. Close study of the one side shows a well formed eye and a badly formed eye, a short stubby nose and an open mouth. The incisions in places carry very fine lines which can be seen on the reverse side also, demonstrating the piece was executed at one point in time. That is not to say there wasn’t an earlier image on the reverse which was subsequently re worked.

The reverse side appears on first impressions to have a single eye. It may originally have been a face on the rear with one smaller eye, nose and slit for a mouth. This is not convincing however. With the aid of a magnifying glass it becomes clear that the oval shaped eye has rays coming of it. Running from top to bottom to the left of the eye is a ladder feature divided int three ‘fields. This can be interpreted in several ways. An eye with rays has no immediate parallel. Thus it may be more likely it is a sun image and the rays are falling onto depiction of fields. This may symbolise the sun’s fertilising powers. As an artefact it is possibly unique and like many of the Littledean heads will require much research and argument to reach a considered and acceptable interpretation.

H.65A Head 65A Ironstone face mask reverse, eye with rays
H.66 Head 66 Old Red Sandstone crude small head iron mineralisation

Find Spot Pool 6 in edging stone. From near to Head 65 this small object is very worn and was in delicate condition. However enough survived to warrant a light cleaning with a fine artist’s paint brush. On drying the features of a face became clearer. It is a salutary example, where original eye, nose and mouth detail has been almost lost and as such it acts as an exemplar for demonstrating how many heads have undoubtedly been lost, from decay and encrustation, in wet or damp seasonal conditions.

H.67 Head 67 Iron slag phallic head shape

Find Spot Stone Hole 3 west side. This example of a possible ‘phallic’ head refers to a class of heads found in Celtic Europe fashioned into menhirs, particularly with La Tene decoration (Ross 1967 et al.). It is a slag run from an iron furnace and has solidified in an unusual way, giving a similarity to a neck and a head. Along with other items of slag which have solidified to give impression of heads these are included in the Littledean corpus of Heads due to their find spots and contexts. The excavators consider these are not items of slag waste/rubbish but have been selected for their human shaped attribute. For a metal smith they provided the means whereby he could make regular offerings relating to the quality of his work and to seek help from the metal smithing god Gofannon in his perfection of skills. It is a concept which we are pursuing at the Littledean site and which has support from Bryn Walters B.A. The association for Roman Archaeology.

H.68 Head 68 Iron slag head?

Find Spot Pool 7 south end lowest silt. Possible iron slag votive head securely sealed in lower pool silts.

H.69 Head 69 Old Red Sandstone head fragment

Find Spot Pool 7 South End. A fragment or possibly essentially complete example of votive offering relating to a nose ailment. Similar concept to Head 62.

H.70 Head 70 Iron slag head?

Find Spot Stone Hole 3 west side.Possible iron slag votive head securely sealed in lower pool silts

H.71 Head 71 Old Red Sandstone small waterworn head

Find Spot Pool 4a East Bank Slope. Another typical Littledean small water worn votive head

H.72 Head 72 Yellow/Brown sandstone head bulging eye

Find Spot Pool 7. This head possibly redeposited is a graphic example of Professor Miranda Aldhouse-Green’s observation that the Littledean Stone Heads are “All about Eyes”. The head is cut into an easily worked brown sandstone. With the caveat we may be looking at damage, the one eye survives in excellent condition whilst the other appears to be lost. Perhaps it is carved to represent healing. The nose actually looks twisted and the cheek bone appears smashed towards the ear. The mouth also looks like it has been damaged. We can imagine a scenario for this head. Does this head represent medical history? The dome of the head seems fine but the face above the bridge of the nose and the missing eye may tell us of a massive trauma event in battle, which failed to kill the individual. Are the lines running from the good eye scars? This head is important as an example of an hither to unexplored aspect of Celtic beliefs and practice.

H.73 Head 73 Water eroded Gypsum block with traces of facial features not recognised on initial finding from Pool 5.

This small block of gypsum came from the fill of a water conduit associated with the west bank of Pool 5. Although heavily eroded and indistinct there appears to be the right side of a facial image with downturned mouth and wedge shaped nose and the remnant swelling of an eye. The left side is missing, which may be deliberate or eroded. If the material is gypsum (verification required) it would have been highly susceptible to water. However given part of the image remains it seems unlikely the whole left side would have disappeared in an undisturbed context.

H.74 Head 74 Heavily eroded Gypsum block with traces of facial features not recognised on finding from Pool 5.

This block of gypsum came from the fill of a water conduit associated with the west bank of Pool 5 and next to H.73. These are the only two finds of this material from the site. The indistinct and highly eroded facial features are illustrated in sketch outline 74A. The eroded hollow at the base is identified as a mouth and curving lines above as a moustache. The basic wedge shape for a nose carried up over the eyes is typically Celtic. The eyes are too ill defined to determine their original shape with certainty although they appear to be oval rather than lentoid. Contour modelling may confirm with more certainty whether this is a head or not. It is included because of context and association with other heads from Pool 5 and the rarity of the material.

H.74A Head 74A Sketch outline of facial features on Gypsum block H.74 from Pool 5.
H.75 Head 75 Old Red Sandstone head fragment – Eye

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. This fragment may represent an eye. As a single random find it would have little significance. However as one of eleven further heads and fragments from from the silt deposits below the principal deposit below the base of IA furnace Fe6, this example and others from the same context are treated as worked parts of heads.

H.76 Head 76 Multi coloured sandstone broken and eroded head

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. This head is another object which would probably be dismissed were it not for context and association with other heads as well as the shape and stone colourations. The eye orbs appear to have been ground out.

H.77 Head 77 Old Red Sandstone head fragment – Nose

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. Another uncertain object identified as a facial part as in a nose, based on context. The piece appears to be a nose with nostrils. The lines scratched across appear to be relevant.

H.78 Head 78 Old Red Sandstone head fragment – Eye with rays

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. Another head fragment representing an eye with radiating lines.

H.79 Head 79 Old Red Sandstone head with rimmed right eye.

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. Although this is a crude head it has a defined ridge for a nose underscored with a distinct mouth and pinhole eyes, the right one of which has several evidences for a rimmed outer circle which is totally missing in the left eye. This suggests special attention was being placed on this eye and provides further support for the theory that it is the eyes which have the most emphasis in the Littledean corpus of stone heads.

H.80 Head 80 Old Red Sandstone head or face mask with pinhole eyes and minimal nose etching

Find Spot Deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. This head has some similarity with H.3 a small face mask from Pool 5 which lies c. 36m to the west of Pool 1. Whereas the nose etching of this head is faint the mouth appears to have been large with left hand side broken away. The mouth of H.3 is also large.

H.81 Head 81 Old Red Sandstone tiny face mask with ‘crying’ eye

Find Spot Deposit below base of IA furnace Fe6. This tiny face mask has no impression of a mouth. Although there is some damage around the right eye, the linear incision marking the right side of the nose may be accentuated from the pinhole eye. It possibly represents a tear line as with H.84. as pinhole eyes do not have the nose feature carrying up to form the eyebrow.

H.82 Head 82 Old Red Sandstone primitive head

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. A crude and simple head very similar to heads 48 and 49 from Water Channel 2.

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. this head is split down the middle and the left side has not been recovered, possibly because it was fragmented. The rarity of broken heads suggests this breakage was accidental and may be consistent with re depositing from elsewhere and damage in the process. This is unfortunate as it could have been stylistically very important and unique to the Littledean head corpus. it is exceptionally and uniquely long and narrow having a marked similarity to several of the wooden heads from Le temple de la Foret d’Halatte, Oise in France.

H.84 Head 84 Grainy sandstone primitive head with a possible emphasis on left eye ‘crying’

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. Another extraordinary crude and simple, but effective head in a very gritty sandstone. The channel from the left eye seems to be original and creates a compelling appearance of sorrow od distress/pain.

H.85 Head 85 Old Red Sandstone primitive head with emphasis on eyes.

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. The fourth crude head from this context except the eyes have been given more detail and looks like both had raised pupils, the left significantly smaller than the right.

H.86 Head 86 Old Red Sandstone Rimmed eye tablet.

Find Spot Deposit 2 below base of IA furnace Fe6. Whereas the other examples of eyes from this context are debatable were it not for context, this example is more convincingly an eye. The outer incised rim and sunken pupil appears to be a more basic form to the beautifully developed eyes of Head 59.

H.87 head 87 Large Bronderslev type head geology not established

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. This large quartz veined block, of as yet unrecognised geology, is scored with many incisions and pecking marks. It has a worked domed head and appears to have been ‘dressed’ to enhance an head like shape. The left eye which shows as a shadow has a faint circular rim at top and bottom of the eye. it is noteworthy that with the ‘face’ turned to the sun it becomes invisible and only when turned away, so that shadow falls over the features, does it become visible. The find of this head in April 2020 and particularly H.88 which follows adds credulity to the identification of H.16 as the ‘Bronderslev’ type. The group all came from within a metre proximity to each other. Of all the corpus of Littledean stone heads they may be pivotal to the origins of the Celtic stone head in Britain. Their crudity and simplicity evades current understanding and places this group of artefacts in a profound position. At the best we can only expect to interpret them through informed judgements based to a large degree on myth and the early descriptives of Welsh and Irish literature.

H.88 Head 88 Large Bronderslev type head Gritty sandstone

Find spot face down in Roman foundation between the drain outfall and pool (Pool 8) described under H.87. This coarse grained sandstone head with pronounced natural crease for a mouth, has slight traces of etching to both left and right eyes, which appear to be features natural to the stone. The forehead is pronounced and the dome of the head has been ground to shape. How much natural erosion has taken place accenuating cracks and grooves over the millennia is impossible to say. The base is ground as is part of the back, which in the latter case is unusual. A significant ground out shallow hole in the back seems significant. It is noteworthy that the base is ground so that the face is looking towards the sky when stood up. The hole in the rear may be to take a supporting stick to steady the head in this position. It is the only head from Littledean which inclines to the sky when stood. This is suggestive of belief in the Supreme Being and the gaze into the infinity of the night sky. As a primitive head it transcends the Bronderslev type in that it has evidence of lentoid eyes and an inherent head shape, factors both missing from the minimalism of the Bronderslev type. Heads 16, 87 and 88 may at this point in time be a set of three heads, representing triplism so often quoted by the academic authorities.

H.89 Head 89 Gritty sandstone head exploiting natural and water erosion features

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple.This medium sized grainy sandstone head is crudely mask like. The facial features are entirely natural with a minimal grinding for the mouth at the base of ‘the nose’. The left hand ‘smiley’ mouth possibly has ochre embedded in the natural crease. The eyes are probably natural water erosion which have been enhanced with grinding. The ragged pit to the right of thr right eye is a break. It is not free standing and accordingly not placed with heads 16, 87 and 88.

H.90 Head 90 Small gritty sandstone head

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. Small gritty face mask votive head.

H.91 Head 91 Old Red Sandstone small ‘owl’ head

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. Small owl like face votive head.

H.91A Head 91A Old Red Sandstone small head, reverse of H.91

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. The reverse side of H.91

H.92 Head 92 Old Red Sandstone possible small head

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. Small votive head with only one eye, possible oblique lines across right side eye implying eye disease.

H.93 Head 93 Small Old Red Sandstone head

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. Another head depicting damage or disease to right eye

H.94 Head 94 Old Red Sandstone head etched into one rough face of whetstone

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. Another head possibly depicting disease to left side of face (left blank). The right side has probably been damaged.

H.95 Head 95 Gritty sandstone tiny face mask

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. This tiny head is an example of tiny votive heads which were possibly made in a few minutes to deposit in pools to grant a wish. From the late Iron Age onwards coins probably replaced this practice, which also included pebbles, particularly white ones.

H.96 Head 96 Coloured sandstone broken whetstone with face engraved into top end

Find Spot Stone Hole 2 this artefact is the top part of a whetstone. It was found with two other pieces from the same whetstone in the top fill to Stone Hole 2, where a standing stone possibly previously stood for the winter solstice sunrise. The ochre stone head H58 came from the same deposit. The whetstone is 6cm x 5.5cm in cross section and 33cm long. Although the image is now very faint it does appear to be two eyes and trace of a nose with an open mouth below. The significance of this artefact is yet to be considered. However the whetstone compares with the few longest whetstones found in Ireland. The Littledean Whetstones and Hones Gallery is currently under construction.

H.97 Head 97 Old Red Sandstone primitive head single eye.

Find Spot in fill of boulder lined pool (Pool 8) incorporated into the west end of the north wall of Roman temple. This head was amongst a deposit of whetstones filling the top of Pool 8. Representation of the nose is abstract, while the mouth is quite ephemeral in outline. The nose is marked by the frontal ridge of the stone. The mouth by the faint outline of a large downturned mouth, only revealed by careful and prolonged cleaning of the slight incisions blocked by hardened (baked?) clay. Or it may represent a moustache and the natural crack the bottom of the mouth, which can just be made out as an oval above the crack. It is the single eye set almost in the centre of the head which is most significant. From the single eye rays fall towards the earth. Head 16 from the drain outlet ay also be depiction of the single eye. These do not seem to be heads having anything to do with healing but a lot to do with the myth of Balor of the Evil eye. This artefact was discovered in 2020 when anomalies at the west end of the north wall foundation were investigated. Evidence quickly accumulated demonstrating that an Iron Age paved pool, with in situ stone revetting, still survived at the base of the foundation of the nymphaeum temple. Numerous heads were found including two more heads of the ‘Bronderslev’ types (H.87 and H.88). These endorse H.16 which was located within two metres of 87 and 88.


H.98 Head 98

Find Spot in drainage gulley at base of period 2 wall foundation and apparently either part of the revetting of Pool 8 or laid in the edge of the pool. The context is uncertain therefore, as it could be late Iron Age, Early Roman or later 1st century, if not an even later deposit. All things considered and given its somewhat crude style it may be early Romano Celtic. The head is particularly interesting for its geology (not yet determined) and its complex etching of facial features.

H.99 Head 99

Find Spot buried in wall foundation of the north west corner of the temple beside Pool 8. Probably coeval with Period 2 temple. The stone appears to be spotted dolerite (bluestone) with the nearest outcrops on the Preseli hills. The stone has an indistinct and much weathered face on one edge. Also there is a declivity in the top of the stone. One broad side of the stone is covered in a quartz seam. It may have been an altar stone and was probably set up in the ground on a plinth. The burning question is how did it get from West Wales to Littledean. It suggests that the Littledean site was known about by the inhabitants of West Wales.

H.99A Head 99A

Quartz seam on one broad side of spotted dolerite (bluestone) erratic block


Face clearly visible on spotted dolerite (bluestone) erratic boulder

H.100 Head 100

Find Spot in wall foundation of Period 2 wall adjacent to Pool 8. This is a large shaped block of ‘whitehead limestone’ probably from the iron ore mines on the eastern edge of the Forest of Dean above Littledean and about a mile across the valley from the temple site. The limestone has areas of red ochre pigmentation which occurs naturally in the limestone. It is a good example of a ‘phallic’ head and the tallest head from the site. It appears to have broken off a shaft and may have been the top of a carved standing stone. The stone was covered in moss and clay dirt. Recent claning has revealed the nose and eyes of a face. Water erosion down the centre indicates it was in a vertical position. Striations in opposing directions over the head may represent hair braids and may date the head to the late Iron Age. Its position in the wall foundation, as with H.99 indicates it predates the later 1st century AD and the erosion suggests it may be pre Roman. It is one of the most important artefacts from the site.

H.100A Head 100A
H.101 Head 101 Old Red Sandstone large head broken right edge

Find Spot at base and below the south west embankment of the Period 1 pool on the base of Water Channel 2. This large sandstone head has features and expression very typical of Iron Age heads. It is one of several (see following) heads from a certain Iron Age/pre Roman context and probably dates to the 1st century BC or earlier.

H.102 Head 102 Large Quartz pebble with added working

Find Spot at base and below the south west embankment of the Period 1 pool on the base of Water Channel 2. This large quartz pebble is identified as a head by association with other heads all from the same context. This group of heads definitively date to before the quenching phase of Pool 1 and before c.43AD. Traces of etching indicate an attempt to create an eye and nose features and the natural crease a mouth. The base of the head has an intriguing slight protrusion suggestive of a ‘severed head’ symboloism.

H.103 Head 103 Old Red Sandstone anthropomorphic face mask

Find Spot Water Channel 2 below south pool bank overflow. This extraordinary head is thought to possibly represent a dog’s face with long nose and fur lines below the eyes. Dogs were considered healing animals. Or it may represent a wolf’s face, the wolf being one of the Welsh moon goddess Arianrhod’s familiars (Anthony Beeson pers. comm.)

H.104 Head 104 Old Red Sandstone abstract head with gouge incisions on rear

Find Spot Water Channel 2 below south pool bank overflow. This head, although associated with heads 102 and 103, which are definitively dated to the Iron Age through context and several slag dedosits, appears to belong to a few heads with abstract facial features. It may be much much older and from an earlier tradition. The Water Channel was constructed in the late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age.

H.104A Head 104A Old Red Sandstone abstract head gouge marks on rear
H.105 Head 105 Old Red Sandstone ‘half face’ head no mouth and large eye detail

Find Spot in rubble surrounding a rectangular post pit and forming the west bank of Pool 1 before the metal quenching phase. The rubble appeared to have been hard standing around a post, possibly a votive pillar which had been approached by many people over a long indefinite period of time.

H.106 Head 106 Old Red Sandstone Broken lower half of large head

Find Spot in rubble surrounding a rectangular post pit and forming the west bank of Pool 1 before the metal quenching phase. Same find spot as H.105. This is a fragment of a largehead and is clearly the lower half of a damaged face.

H.107 Head 107 Old Red sandstone nose fragment side view

Find Spot in rubble surrounding a rectangular post pit and forming the west bank of Pool 1 before the metal quenching phase. This is from another broken head. It does not fit H.106

H.107A Head 107A Old Red Sandstone nose fragment frontal view
H.108 Head 108 Old Red Sandstone eye tablet

Find Spot in rubble surrounding a rectangular post pit and forming the west bank of Pool 1 before the metal quenching phase. This may be from another broken head or it may have been a votive to wish for healing an eye complaint.

H.109 Head 109 Old Red Sandstone crude head

Find Spot in rubble surrounding a rectangular post pit and forming the west bank of Pool 1 before the metal quenching phase. From the same rubble compacted surface as the last heads described. It appears that stone heads were trampled or beaten down into the ground at the base of the post. Either they may have been placed around the post and became subsequently damaged and subsumed into the ‘cobble’ ground surface or were deliberately smashed and beaten into the surface. We suspect more of the compacted stones in this context may have been heads. The cobble surface sloped down the bank slightly and it may originally been an artificial plinth around the possible votive post.

H.110 Head 110 Old Red Sandstone possible crude head

Find spot in base of Water Channel 2 at south end near H.102 this is a putative Neolithic head with remnant of patterning lines.

H.111 Head 111 Old Red Sandstone crude head

Find Spot in base of drainage gulley from temple. This head was on the edge where the temple drainage gulley flowed into the outer gulley, along which water flowed away from the temple area. The context suggests the head was placed in the gulley in the late Iron Age.

H.112 Head 112 Old Red Sandstone Romano-Celtic context

Find Spot in base of drainage gulley from temple. This head was buried in a pit in the floor of the gulley at the point where it flowed into the outer gulley. The pit was cut through the clean floor and not through the silt layers filling the gulley. The deposit context can be dated to the Roman construction phase when the gulley was probably refurbished. It is a very fine head with smoothed surfaces and worked along an edge of the stone. The sub circular eyes and mouth are finished in an apparent haphazard manner. However one should perhaps not read anything into this as lack of attention to detail but more as an expession of meaning lost to us today. Possibly late 1st century or 2nd century Romano Celtic.

H.113 Head 113 Old Red Sandstone plaque possibly abstract head

Find Spot in wall foundation by Pool 8. This interesting abstract art is considered a head by medical experts, who see it as representing one good eye and one blind eye, or an eye affected by very severe migraine. The presumed nose and mouth is completely unique in the Dean Hall corpus of stone heads as is the face mask as a whole. It can be dated with reasonable confidence to the Roman period and possibly the period 3 rebuilding of the temple in the late 2nd or early 3rd century. However all the heads redeposited in the foundation area are seen to be late Iron Age and were probably placed in the foundation in the period 2 construction of the first large temple. Thus this abstract face mask may be from the same construction period.

H.114 Head 114 Old Red Sandstone face mask

Find spot Hearth Area 2 to the south side of (HA1). This particularly interesting and important head etched as a face mask into sandstone has a possible hair band and above the hair band a chevron frieze for hair. The facial features are interpreted by medical Doctors Nick Summerton and Michael Grant the Baron de Longueuil, independently of each other, as representing Bell’s Palsy. As such it is an artefact of great potential significance. Bell’s Palsy can recover spontaneously and thus the head provides the possibility for a ‘miracle cure’ whereby the head was offered at the temple, the cure took place naturally and was seen therefore as a successful healing with huge kudos for the temple. The drooping eye and eyelid and mouth are typical indicators for the condition.

H.114A Head 114A Old Red Sandstone face mask
H.115 Head 115 Old Red Sandstone miniature head

Find spot Hearth Area 1 (HA1). A miniature sandstone head with well defined ‘pin hole’ eyes recovered with a number of other votive objects from in front of the prehistoric ‘altar’. This is the first head found which shows clear proof for simplistic features of eyes, nose and mouth.

H.115A Head 115A
H.116 Head 116 Old Red Sandstone head

Find spot overflow to south end of Bronze Age Water Channel WC3.

This head is possibly etched onto a grinding or hone stone as it has a smoothed dished area. The stone has been broken whilst retaining the face in the top left corner of the stone. It may be a decorated whetstone and if so very rare or perhaps the face was etched in after the stone broke and buried as an offering. The eyes are etched differently to each other.

H.117 Head 117 Old Red Sandstone possible head fragment

Find spot adjacent to heads 123 to 125. By association this is a possible head fragment

H.118 Head 118

Find spot of H.118 in the east side construction edge at the outfall of the 3rd period flushing drain of the Period 3 Roman temple of the late 2nd/early 3rd century above Heads 123,124 and 125. Probably a Romano Celtic face mask c.200 AD.

H.119 Head 119 Cloaked head and figure
H.119A Head 119A Cloaked and hooded figure

Find Spot in outer bank, east end, of Pool 8 on edge of drainage channel from Period 2 drain. Deposit date late 1st to early 2nd century AD. Image of a possible genius culcullatus with hooded cloak. Same context as H.120.

H.120 Head 120

Find Spot in outer bank, east end, of Pool 8 on edge of drainage channel from Period 2 drain. Deposit date late 1st to early 2nd century AD. A fragment of a probable Romano Celtic head (Anthony Beeson) with ‘flame’ type hair imagery.

H.121 Head 121 Old Red Sandstone large anthropomorphic head ‘Bronderslev Type’

Find Spot Wall foundation north west corner period 2 below slag deposit See H.88. Bronderslev type head.

H.122 Old Red Sandstone abstract mask from neolithic context

Find spot Water Channel 2 towards south end at very base penetrating the natural clay. This is a significant artefact which, because it was impressed into the clay floor at the base of the water channel, below all the silt layers, may be considered Neolithic or early Bronze Age. The abstract decoration is possibly suggestive of facial features.

H.122A Head 122 A Old Red Sandstone abstract mask from neolithic context

H.123 Head 123 Miniature sandstone face mask

H.124 Head 124 Miniature sandstone face mask

H.125 Head 125 Miniature sandstone face mask

The find spots of H.123,124 and 125 were all together in the east side construction edge at the outfall of the 3rd period flushing drain of the Period 3 Roman temple of the late 2nd/early 3rd century and lay below H.118 and adjacent to H.117 and H.105. It is the grouping with the obvious head 118 which makes it very likely these are miniature votive offerings accompanying a wish to the water goddess. Significantly the context indicates they were deposited after the later 2nd century AD long into the Roman period. A similarity with other miniature Littledean heads from certain Iron Age pre Roman Conquest contexts is striking.

H.126 Head 126 Conglomerate sandstone block with carved face
H.126 Head 126 Full frontal view

This head is particularly interesting. It has only recently been recognised. It probably came from the eastern end of the temple in the eastern outer court with other random building stones, which were gathered up during excavations in 1986 and stored in a stone pile. This one was liberally covered in moss in 2019 and encrusted with dirt. The general shape alerted me to its possible interest and after cleaning away the moss and dirt the facial features emerged. Current ongoing study suggests it may have been carved into a roughly rectangular block of conglomerate sandstone and reworked in the late 2nd or 3rd century AD as a keystone. One tiny patch of mortar suggests it was used in a construction context.

H.127 Head 127 Sandstone face mask
H.128 Head 128 Crude old red sandstone head
H.130 Head 130 Crude old red sandstone triple faced head
H.130A Head 130A Crude multi faced old red sandstone head
H.130B Head 130B Crude multi faced old red sandstone head

H.131 Head 131 crude old red sandstone head with hair or horns
H.132 Head 132 Small green and pink face mask
H.133 Head 133 Miniature head etched into vitrified slag material
H.134 Head 134 Miniature sandstone head
H.135 Head 135 Miniature yellow green sandstone double sided head
H.135A Head 135A Miniature yellow green sandstone double sided head
H.136 Head 136 Crude sandstone head
H.137 Head 137 Miniature old red sandstone ‘residual’ face mask
H.138 Head 138 Miniature old red sandstone head
H.139 Head 139 Miniature old red sandstone head
H.140 Head 140 Miniature crude face mask
H.141 Head 141 Crude old red sandstone head
H.142 Head 142 Miniature old red sandstone head
H.143 Head 143 Miniature old red sandstone face mask
H.144 Head 144 Miniature old red sandstone face mask
H.145 Head 145 Miniature old red sandstone face mask
H.146 Head 146 Miniature old red sandstone head
H.147 Head 147 Miniature old red sandstone head
H.148 Head 148 Miniature old red sandstone head
H.149 Head 149 Miniature old red sandstone head
H.150 Head 150 Miniature old red sandstone face mask
H.151 Head 151 Crude old red sandstone head
H.152 Head 152 Crude damaged old red sandstone head
H.153 Head 153 Old Red Sandstone possible triple goddess figure
H.154 Head 154 Old red Sandstone head with hair and well formed eyes
H.155 Head 155 Old Red Sandstone possible crude eroded head
H.156 Head 156 Old Red Sandstone crude head
H.157 Head 157 Fine white pebble head
H.158 Head 158 Fine flat brown pebble head
H.159 Head 159 Fine bluestone etched pebble head
H.160 Head 160 Flint nodule etched with eye – bird head
H.161 Head 161 Chalk Ball with face image
H.161A Chalk Ball face on reverse side.
H.162 Head 162 Coloured worked sandstone emoji!
H.163 Head 163 Flint sponge nodule with possible face and yellow ochre stain
H.164 Head 164 Iron Age smoothing stone with crude face etched on one side
H.165 Head 165 Old Red Sandstone head
H.166 Head 166 Old red Sandstone hexagonal whetstone with La Tene style decorated ace

This remarkable head came from Pit 26 in the Iron Age ‘memorial ground’ where eleven pits have been identified and excavated. Nearly all these pits have had a single artefact placed in them and sometimes more. This artefact is a very rare octagonal whetstone (one parallel is from Ballinderry in Ireland). The face shows evidence for continued sharpening use. There is the residual trace of a terminal flourish for an earlier moustache which can be seen in the picture. The decoration is clearly in the La Tene Style and this may be the most important Iron Age artefact from the Littledean Temple. There are two other decorated whetstones from the site, one with a face etched into one end and the other with a ship or boat.

H.167 Head 167 Flint sponge nodule with possible face and yellow ochre stain
H.167A Head 167A Flint sponge nodule with possible face and yellow ochre stain
H.168 Head 168 Old Red Sandstone crude head
H.169 Head 169 Old Red Sandstone crude head
H.170 Head 170 Old red Sandstone crude head
H.171 Head 171 Single slag deposit possible haed

With a much larger sample than first listed we can now see a more obvious division of size, style, geology and possible purpose in the Littledean heads. Can we see any evidence to support understanding that to the Celts the head was perceived as the seat of the soul? Professor Miranda Aldhouse – Green identifies a common theme whereby there is an emphasis on the eyes. Two retired medical authorities note this also. A number of heads suggest possible facial trauma and head wounds are depicted. Numerous heads may be anthropomorphic and the head type I have coined as ‘Bronderslev head’ is noteworthy in one find area and rather than solely H.16 can now be identified in several heads. The tiny heads can also be seen increasingly as truly apotropaic votives. Given the doubt amongst the academic community for a cult of the head represented by iconic imagery, the ochre stained heads are of the first importance. Both these and several face masks perhaps do not readily fit the concept of healing, but whether they can be taken to be representative of individuals or gods seems impossible to say. Notably the one mask, cut from limestone carboniferous shale, which exudes natural black bitumin, may be the most important artefact of the Littledean typologies. The shape of the nose is strongly consistent with African ancestry and suggests this is a portrait head, in which case others must be also. The corpus of heads from Littledean provides huge potential for research and the development of new theories and concepts of Celtic culture.